Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Jurisprudence Essay Example for Free

Jurisprudence Essay The term jurisprudence has been used in very different senses. Originally it meant the science of Right. Afterwards it was used to mean knowledge of the principles of law, or skill in its practice. In the institutes of Justinian Jurisprudence is define d to be the knowledge of what is just and unjust. Upon the revival of learning in Europe in the sixteenth century, jurisprudence was used to signify the knowledge of the Roman law. The term has also been used in a sense borrowed from the French to imply a collection of the principles belonging to particular branches of law – thus, Equity Jurisprudence, Maritime Jurisprudence. The term has also been used to signify the whole body of the law of a State—thus, the Jurisprudence of England. The classification of laws has never yet been adopted upon the grand scale demanded by Jurisprudence. If a system of the Law were correctly framed, and if codes of laws were drafted of one true principle by all civilized nations, the language of each race would serve as a glossary by which all systems of positive law might be explained; whilst the matter in each code would afford a test and standard by which all might be tried. By law is here understood positive law—that is, the law existing by position, or, the law of human enactment. Jurisprudence is the science of positive laws, and, as such, is the theory of those duties which are capable of being enforced by the public authority. Jurisprudence, so treated, may take its place as one of those inductive sciences in which, by the observation of the facts and use of reason, systems of doctrine have been established which are universally received as truths among thoughtful men. But Jurisprudence in its in its investigation of the origin, principles, and development of law, obviously furnishes rules which teach men to acknowledge and select good laws, to shun evil laws, and to practice the existing laws and apply them skillfully. Hence, Jurisprudence is not only the Science of Positive Laws but is also the Art of Legislation and the practice of Advocacy. A Jurist may state principles of law in his study, enact laws in the senate, or advocate rights in his forum (Heron, 2001). Jerome and West contribution  The American Legal Realists exhibited many and diverse, not always compatible, attitudes towards the possibilities of exploring the future, even while making important contributions to needed theory and procedures. Thus Jerome Frank was a leader in deriding the possibilities of predicting official behaviour by the application of traditional legal rules and was most skeptical of the potentialities of reliable prediction by any means; yet he made uniquely significant contribution by drawing upon many psychologies to demonstrate the importance of predispositional factors (the subjectivities of decision makers) in affecting all decision. The insistence of the Realists, already described, that technical legal rules be related to categories of events in community process that raise comparable policy problems has tremendously increases the possibilities of achieving comprehensive and precise description of relevant past trends in decision and value consequences (Lasswell McDougal, 1992). Jerome Frank has set out in his well known work†¦ to analyze the law from a psychoanalytical point of view. In the traditional teaching and presentation of the law Frank discerns a desire for certainty which he likens to the infant’s craving for infallible authority (father complex). Lawyers in general, and judges in particular, have clung to the myth of legal certainty, by establishing fictitious system of precedents, hiding before themselves and others the fact that every case is unique and requires creative decisions. A similar myth surrounds the activities of juries. Analytical jurisprudence expresses this child like desire for certainty and stability. Frank’s own ideal is the â€Å"the completely adult lawyer† (Marke, 1995). Although Gray joins Holmes as one of the two great Jurisprudential heroes for Jerome Frank, Karl Llewellyn, and the other legal realists, he is much more than that ; he is a kind of American John Austin, but one whose analytical Jurisprudence does not act as if legal concept originated and developed outside legal history. He represents the positivistic branch of the American pragmatic legal tradition. He is closer to Austin than Holmes, than but not as influenced as Holmes— or John Dewey— by historical jurisprudence, or the evolutionary controversy, or the increasing respect philosophers paid to the very idea of historical development( Gray,1999). Jerome was heavily critical of the work of Christopher Columbus Langdell, the American legal academic whose is best known for introducing the ‘case method’ of teaching law into American law Schools. Langdell viewed law as a science, which could be practiced very simply by applying legal rules mechanically to specific cases recorded in the law reports. Langdell’s method rested heavily on the positivistic notion that law resided solely in the reports of decided cases or in statutes. Jerome criticized this arguing that Langdellian legal science had very little to do with law, because it overlooked such things as the lawyer-client relationship and the rule of the jury. He argued that Langdell’s attitude towards law was typical of what he termed ‘the basic legal myth’; lawyers promote the myth that legal rules can be applied in a mechanical way because they, like all human beings, are constantly looking for certainty. The purpose of Realism, on the other hand, was to expose this myth. This concern with what Frank saw as law in action, rather than with the ‘legal myth’ of the law in the books, was typical of the concerns expressed by members of the legal realist movement. The contradiction which can be found in the work of not only of Jerome, but also of another American Legal Realists, is a serious flaw. However, American Legal Realism, with it emphasis on ‘law in action’ rather than ‘law in the books’ had a positive contribution to make to the development of Jurisprudence(Cownie, Bradney Burton, 2007). While some sought a stable referent, others, such as Mackinnon and Matsuda, sought to refashion old tools to serve new purposes. The equal protection clause of the American constitution seemed a promising candidate, and the Jurisprudence of antisubordination was born. West, Kennedy, Mackinnon and Matsuda are united in the belief that outsiders will not find freedom, justice, or equality in the law as it is. They insisted that law’s empire is defined not by attitude, but by what really happens (and what does not happen). Inequality†¦is not a bad attitude that floats in the sky but an embodied particular that walks on the ground. † An attitude of equal concern, one might say, can very easily leave unaltered the â€Å"embodied particulars† that constitute the reality of inequality as opposed to the theory (Berns, 1993). By promoting the idea that rights are crucial for the protection of individual autonomy, Robin West argues, liberal jurisprudence fails adequately to represent more identifiably ‘feminine’ values such as intimacy and care. Liberal jurisprudence is essentially masculine jurisprudence, in other words, because it prioritizes the distinctively male ethic of justice or rights. Robin West claims, ‘it is nevertheless an institution within which we work from a position of relative disempowerment. ’ For feminist legal theorists, this sense of marginalization is attributable primarily to the fact that critical legal studies, like liberal jurisprudence, fails sufficiently to take into account women’s experience, values and concerns (Duxbury, 1997). In 1988, Robin West began her well known-article â€Å"Jurisprudence and Gender† by asking WHAT IS A HUMAN BEING? â€Å"What is a human being? Legal Theorist must, perforce, answer this question: jurisprudence, after all, is about human beings. † Robin West. She concluded that women are not human beings insofar as legal theory is concerned. Her question, and the contribution of feminist theory to answer, forms a central theme to this work. If the definition of a human being is central to jurisprudence, it is vital to uncover whether that definition adequately encompasses all human beings. Western conceptions of human beings have been inadequate in that they have failed to encompass all human beings. In some instances this is because of the inherent constitution of the definition, while in others, the problem arises from the way theories have been misinterpreted (Marshall, 2005). Towards a Fist Amendment Jurisprudence of Respect. Robin comments that Goerge Fletcher’s recent article helps us see that those understandings, in turn, rest on two different conceptions of what he labels our senses of â€Å"constitutional identity. Although it is largely undefined by Fletcher, we might take his phrase â€Å"constitutional identity to refer† to refer to that aspect of our collective and individual self-conception which we owe to our shared constitutional heritage, and which at least on occasion determines outcomes in close constitutional heritage, and which at least on occasion determines outcomes in close constitutional cases in ways that â€Å"overarching principles of political morality† do not. The two understanding of our constitution identity that seem to bolster these conflicting accounts of the constitutional status of hate speech regulations might be called, however unimaginatively, the liberal and the progressive paradigm. Both the liberal and unquestionably dominant account of free speech and the correlative liberal arguments against the constitutionality of hate speech regulations are deeply familiar. Both were recently affirmed by the Supreme Court, and both are eloquently spelled out in Fletcher’s article. Like prayer in earlier times, expression of our innermost selves is a vital means of self fulfillment, and hence it is itself a moral act of high order. We each bare our individual, our innermost souls when we express ourselves. And, because we value individual souls, we protect and value our speech, whatever its context or side effects. We protect expression today for essentially the same reason we once protected religion—namely, the constitutive role of expressive religion in earlier times, and expressive speech today, in the development of the individual’s personality(West,1994). Relevance of Jurisprudence The broad division of jurisprudential inquiry indicates that jurisprudence covers a wide area of study, dealing with a variety of issues and topics, as well as touching on a whole range of other subjects and disciplines. The unifying element in all these aspects of the study, however, is that, in every case, the main question that is being investigated and to which an answer is being sought is, briefly, ‘what is law? ’ According to Chinhengo (2000), essentially, all jurists are seeking to explain the incidence, existence and consequence of law as a social phenomenon. Consequently, general questions to be answered are concerned with such matters as the following: †¢ the origin and sources of law generally and/or in specific societies; the historical development of law in general and the emergence and evolution of specific legal systems, traditions and practices; †¢ the meaning of specific legal concepts and the construction of various legal structures and processes; †¢ the link between law and other social phenomena, such as political ideologies, economic interests, social classes, and moral and religious conventions; †¢ the operation of the law as a mode of social control and the effects that it has on the persons to whom it applies, in terms of justice as well as social, economic and political developments. This interdisciplinary quality of jurisprudence has meant that a student of the subject has to touch on matters that would normally belong to such diverse other disciplines as philosophy, economic theory, sociology, anthropology, history, theology, and even geography. Within all these other areas of study are to be found the munitions of the jurists, who uses the conclusions and insights of scholars studying in such areas to explain law as a social phenomenon, and applies the methodology of these other modes of enquiry to further the understanding of particular legal concepts. In conclusion Jurisprudence, as a subject in many law school curricula, is intended to provide the law student with a device by which he can ground his or her academic knowledge of the black-letter of the law to the reality of the social context in which the legal rules, structure and processes actually occur and operate. The idea, then, is to link the wealth of legal concepts, rules, statutes, precedents, structures, and processes, which one has imbibed haphazardly over a period of time, to the systematic theoretical and sociological insights about the role and place of law in society which jurisprudence seeks to provide (Chinhengo, 2000).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Oxendales Marketing Strategy Analysis

Oxendales Marketing Strategy Analysis Anthony Nolan Marketing Campaign Oxendales started off as a purely clothing supplier when they first appeared online but nowadays they sell a lot of different things from home wear to electricals and entertainment items. Through broadening their stock range, they have become a more desirable option for many more segments of the demographic. This report will show how Oxendales go about their business and how they are viewed by the public that use their service. Oxendales marketing campaigns are ongoing. They are around a long time and their name is a household one. Nonetheless they do still need to get their product out there. With this company, selling items is just part of the offer. They also give credit and charge interest on that credit. They make a lot of money doing business in this manner. Once a new season collection of clothing is announced their marketers set in motion a plan that gets the new arrivals from the storehouse to the public. They appear to have a good idea of who they are targeting with their campaigns. The demographic being targeted is the medium to low income earner or people on social welfare; people who can afford to pay instalments but cannot necessarily afford to buy a product outright. For this segment of the market, Oxendales are often an invaluable ally in helping them to clothe themselves, their families and their homes. Oxendales have a huge selection of items on offer for people and for the household. They tend to bring out two new lines of clothing every year. The different styles and items are reflective of the different seasons. The first line of the year is the Spring/Summer collection, which typically comes to the fore around March or April. Then around September they announce their Autumn/Winter collection. Oxendales introduce their new lines typically through a number of channels that they feel will get their product specifically to the target segment. They show their stock on television, using TV3 as their main channel for showing people the wares on offer. They utilise the show Ireland AM to get their new offers into the vision and minds of the public. At the same time as being seen on television they will also be launching advertising collateral campaigns on many different levels, from more television advertising to social media and physical paper advertising. They will follow this up by interacting with the public one-to-one in trade shows such as the Womans World Show which is a yearly event held at the RDS in Dublin. This public relations meet and greet is meant to align Oxendales with many of the other company brand competitors attending the show as well as get their own brand into the minds of the public or to cement their brand in the minds of people who already know of them. No matter where and through what channel they are showing their items, one will find a consistent feel to their advertisements. The colours used are often very alike across all of their advertising campaigns. If one is reading a flyer that falls out of a magazine they will feel that the look of that flyer is consistent with an advertisement they may have seen on-line for example The visual connection is apparent. The consistent look leads on to the famous Three Cs of marketing. Do Oxendales fulfil this criteria? Well their communications are first class. Their advertisements and language used is clear and concise and is not in the least confusing. They sometimes communicate how simple it is to get credit from them as much as their actual items for sale. Their items are often not as Compelling as their credit offers. Oxendales can often reel in a buyer through the promise of buy now-pay later. This is a compelling way to attract custom from the target segment. Their look remains Consistent throughout. Their colours and designs used for advertising is instantly recognisable and they do utilise consistency across channels. Oxendales use integrated communications too. Every time a piece of Oxendales literature is examined or online source seen, one can immediately identify that the company link to the other places they are available to view as well as to their website. They often also link to their credit facilities which experience has told them is a unique selling point. The Marketing Mix The Product Being Sold The most important part of Oxendales overall product is convenience. Online Shopping is on the rise according to Roy Morgan Research (2015). So, from that we can conclude that people are using the convenience of online shopping for a myriad of reasons. What are these reasons? Upstream Commerce (2012) quoted the eight most important reasons that people shop online as Convenience, Better Prices, Variety, Fewer Expenses, Comparison of Prices, No Crowds, Compulsive Shopping and Discreet Purchases. We will see many of these reasons pop up again and again. Barbara Thau of Forbes.com (2013) quotes a study by strategy and marketing consultants Simon, Kucher and Partners when she propounds that 24% of online shoppers like to buy books, consumer electronics and entertainment online while 18% of online consumers prefer to buy health and beauty products, toys, sports equipment, hobby interests, clothing, merchandise and furniture online. This is an interesting finding in relation to Oxendales online activity. 24% of online shopping is spent on books, consumer electronics and entertainment. How many of these do Oxendales supply? The answer is two of the three. Oxendales will sell a person everything from an IPod to an Xbox and from a television to a heater (and many, many items in between). Books are the odd ones out. We move on 18% of people shop online to buy health and beauty products, toys, sports equipment, hobby interests, clothing, merchandise and furniture. That is seven categories of items that could possibly be sold online. Again, how many of them do Oxendales sell? The answer is Five. This online behemoth sells all of that list barring hobby interests and merchandise (though all things sold could be classed as merchandise surely?) So going by the experts views on why people shop online, one would have to conclude that Oxendales understand the reasons and offer an excellent product to people in their online store in order to fulfil the needs of their customers. Specifically however a product is more than just an item. How does this company fulfil the other range of criterion that goes to tick the product box in relation to Marketing? Quality: Like many shops, both online and physical, the quality of item bought is directly linked to the price of the product. Having sampled many of Oxendales products they have been found to be durable and fashion sensitive. Certainly as an online shop, Oxendales is seen as a high quality outlet. Image: The image of Oxendales is linked to a few things. Firstly, it is seen as somewhere that people can buy things now and pay later, thanks to their simple and effective paying plans. They are also seen as ultra-convenient. Oxendales have a wonderful selection of items too in a vast array of sizes and models. So the overall image is one of ease of access to what people want and ease of payment. Branding: Oxendales is a household name. They have been around since 1875 (Oxendales: About, 2016) so it is understandable that in that time they have become so well known. Features, Variants and Mix: As alluded to earlier, this online super store offers many items in many different configurations, sizes, colours and categories. Customer Service: Excellent customer service is available, through online, telephone and written media. When an order is received, the packaging staff also include a return label in case an item does not suit the customer for whatever reason. Availability: Always available to use, every moment of every day of the year. Warranties: Oxendales offer a refund, repair or replacement service on all items purchased that do not reach the consumer in perfect condition (Oxendales: About, 2016). Promotion Oxendales promote sales by giving special offers on their website. The have seasonal promotions in which they offer certain items at a discount price. When Spring arrives, they will often sell outdoor furniture and garden implements at a special discount. In addition to their discounted stock, they also promote through email by giving existing customers money off codes that they can apply to their basket the next time they are online for a discount. For non-members, the company will email introductory offers always highlighting their easy payment option. Almost everybody who applies to Oxendales will be accepted for payment through credit. This company is a market leader in direct marketing. Price It appears that Oxendales do not believe in low price equalling higher sales. Their prices are never as low as one might find on the bargain rail of a local department store. Even when discounts are given, one might find that the item on discount would still exceed the price of a similar discount in a high street shop. As far as positioning goes, the idea that Oxendales wants to hold in the mind of consumers is one of ultimate convenience and ease of purchase. Due to their massive stock one can find almost anything within their range to suit them. Due to their credit facility, one can spend money that they do not actually have and then pay off the cost of the purchases over a set period of time. Due to the company accepting almost anyone that applies for credit, that will place a multitude of people in a catchment net for business, particularly approaching festive periods and leading up to birthdays, weddings, interviews etcetera. The position of Oxendales as a brand is very much one of convenience. However, when people are finding it difficult to keep up to date with payments then the company could be seen as a nuisance and increasingly in a bad light due to their continued letters and phone calls, even though the reason for the continued negative correspondence lies with the consumer. Finally, Oxendales do not only sell through a credit account payment option. They also allow people to pay directly like any other online shop, through use of Credit/Debit card. They do not allow payment through an online bank such as PayPal however. Place Oxendales use a number of different suppliers as part of their distribution channel. Many of their suppliers are little known brands like Premier Man for example. These brands are created and sold exclusively in online shops like Oxendales. The items are produced at low price in many Asian countries, shipped to Oxendales warehouse and then sold on to the consumer or end-user. The company also sell high street brands such as Levis, Wrangler, Toshiba, Black and Decker and Timberland to name a very few. It is the same type of distribution channel. Oxendales buy in the stock at the stock price and then sell on with a mark up to the customer. Of course Oxendales also gain revenue through the interest they charge on their credit facility. The sales support for this company is quite good. They can be contacted by telephone, through a form online on their page and by email. The best way is by far by telephone as one knows they are being heard and they will get an immediate response. The company use a first level channel for selling goods. The goods are produced and then sent directly to Oxendales without the need for a wholesaler. The company also has a presence on social media such as Pinterest, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Blogger. People As far as customer contact goes, Oxendales rarely need to interact with anyone. They do have a phone contact number and there is an automated response which, if navigated correctly will eventually lead to an operator who is usually very friendly and interested in the query being made. However because their system is so well set up online, there is little need for assistance from another person in order to order goods or return them. Having said that they do have top quality IT staff who keep the website current and glitch-less so that the business of making money can continue apace. The webpages of the Oxendales website have all of the facilities that even the most limited computer user might need and understand. The people who work on the image of the company have done a good job keeping the convenience image to the forefront. They also superbly make the consumer feel that they are getting a bargain when in fact they may not be, not compared to a high street store. However the consumer often values convenience over price. Process The process used is very definitely a customer focussed approach. Oxendales want to radiate a friendly and relaxed approach to consumers in everything they offer, from getting the customer to choose the products to be bought to getting the customer to part with their money. Everything on the website is streamlined and very easy to navigate. Most modern internet speeds will allow for easy navigation and very quick page loading. The design of the website is excellent. The pages scroll and it is up to the user of the site to choose how many items to view per page. There is also a facility where one can sort the item content on a number of criteria from Best Sellers, New in, On Sale to Ratings, Price lowest to Highest and vice versa. Moving from one area to the next is very easy too with the use of a docked banner at the head of the page displaying the different department names, each one hyperlinked to the appropriate section. The actual process of finding, adding to the basket and checking out ones selections is very easy on this website. It gives the impression of years of experience on the companys part. Physical Evidence The whole online experience of shopping at Oxendales is really a very good, easy and addictive one. Given a large enough spend limit it could be imagined that many people would get themselves into a lot of debt in a single visit. Once one uses this site, and provided one has some credit left on their account, it is almost a certainty that one will return and purchase again and again. The whole feel is one of ease and once a purchase is made, one of fulfilment. Oxendales offer a positive feeling to people visiting their site. When the products ordered do eventually arrive at ones front door, they are always packaged superbly in a heavy weight plastic outer layer covering a bubble wrap and a thinner plastic inner layer. They come with a printed receipt and a printed returns label should it be required. Really the whole process from ordering to actually receiving the goods is very simple and incredibly stress-free. Visible Metrics Not having access to information about Oxendales Social Media internal metrics one can only comment upon the visible on-page information that is available to all viewers. On Facebook, Oxendales have 20585 followers. The Facebook page receives between one and four new posts from the page manager each day. New posts receive on average four likes each Judging by the amount of likes for their posts, their followers either do not regularly visit the page or they do not like the posts. Due to their continued success in the online shopping market, one could conclude the former reason for the lack of post likes. There have been seventeen visitor posts going back to December 17th 2015, from a membership of over twenty thousand. Oxendales post both images and video files to their Facebook page but neither are very popular Oxendales have 1344 followers on Twitter The Twitter Page receives between one and five new posts per day from the page manager. New posts receive an average of one like each New posts are rarely retweeted Like Facebook, it can be construed that their presence on Twitter does not greatly contribute to their actual sales on their website. Very rarely does any one of the 1344 followers ever reply to a tweet on the Oxendales Twitter page Oxendales has 23 followers on Instagram They have posted 184 images on Instagram Out of 184 posts, they have received just 5 comments Out of 184 posts, they have received 114 Likes concentrated on 26 of the total posts Without access to their page metrics and only going on the visible data one could conclude that Oxendales success is certainly not based upon their online presence. From the information gained one can see that very few people interact with the company through social media. For this reason, it must be concluded that their success is based upon other strategies. Targeted Demographic Oxendales has an emphasis on contemporary womens styling ranging from sizes 12-32 and were constantly developing our collections to bring you the latest looks that will keep you on-trend throughout the season. With our brand ambassador Lorraine Kelly choosing her favourite pieces, were making shopping for plus size clothes, lingerie and wide fit shoes and boots fun, easy and enjoyable regardless of age, size and shape. (Oxendales Website, 2016) The above direct quote is taken from the home page of the Irish Oxendales website. They do offer clothing for children too and for men and they offer homeware and electrical goods. However, this is the headline from the home page of their website. This above all would intimate the following: That the company are targeting the female demographic above all else. That they are attempting to target all age groups of adult women. That they are attempting to target all shapes and sizes of adult women. That they are targeting women who are fashion sensitive and want to be dressed in up to the minute styles Once one clicks on the Menswear hyperlink, the following is displayed: At JD Williams we know that finding stylish menswear that fits perfectly can be tricky. Our collection of big and tall menswear comes in a range of sizes to give you perfectly proportioned design. We have t-shirts, polos, coats and jackets in chest sizes 36-66, plus our trousers and jeans are available in 5 leg lengths, including extra-short and extra-long leg and waist sizes 32-64. Discover how easy it is to find the perfect fit for every occasion. (Oxendales Website, 2016) Oxendales is still the page header however Williams and Brown is the Menswear Department name. They are using this ploy of renaming the department to make it distinct and separate from the other departments. Their catch-line on this page would suggest the following: That they stock many different types of clothing from T-shirts to jackets to trousers That they cater for all sizes of man, tall, small, fat, thin and everything in between You name it, kids need it. Cots, highchairs, clothes, shoes, coats. But with all this in one place, shopping for your family has never been simpler. Look out for our new range of girls and boys clothing in our collection of baby, nursery and childrens essentials. (Oxendales Website, 2016) This demographic is aimed at the younger generation and is found on the kids page of the website. So what can one glean from this statement? They stock items for many ages of child They stock items for both girls and boys So what can be concluded from the information gained? The conclusion has to be that Oxendales, while catering for many different types of person and interest, primarily wants women to visit their site. This is suggested by the first page loaded on entering the website being aimed primarily at women. The want ladies of all ages and who are fashion sensitive. They probably know that even in the year 2016, women still do a lot of the buying for the household and therefore by targeting women on their home page, they are indirectly offering them the other areas of the site for their perusal also. The tag-lines on the Menswear and kids-wear pages are also aimed at women as well as men. They continue to talk about interests of women, the perfect fit and fashion. Advertising Campaign Oxendales advertise their online business in a number of ways. They use different online sources and some physical ways to advertise (as opposed to intangible online advertising). Their latest advertising technique is to sponsor television shows. They are the current sponsor of the popular television drama Downton Abbey. This means that every time the show is on television, the Oxendales brand is shown on-screen prior to the start of the episode and at the start and end of every advertisement break. This is more than just advertising of course as they are also positioning their Brand next to the aristocratic gentry of a period now long since passed. The nobility and wealth of the families portrayed in the show places Oxendales into a high class light by association. They also advertise on television on daytime television. Ireland AM is a popular morning show mostly for stay at home mothers and unemployed people. The latest fashions available from Oxendales can be seen quite often being modelled on this show. Ireland AM also tend to use real people as models rather than incredibly beautiful sculpted catwalk ladies and gentlemen. This is good for Oxendales as they are trying to sell their brand to the people in the street. On the negative side, using normal people their clothes may not look as glamorous as they would on a professional model. Oxendales advertise online on such sites as hotfrog.ie and rollercoaster.ie. The former is a business directory and this type of advertising is quite astute as people use business directories all the time to locate phone numbers and addresses. Having an ad in such a place should serve the company well. The latter, rollercoaster.ie is a parent and pregnancy site. One can immediately see what Oxendales intentions are here. They are appealing to the mother on behalf of the child; they sell for both. Their online presence also stretches to social media. Not only do they have their various social media pages but they also have paid advertisements in the side bars on the various pages on various sites. Finally, they use the old fashioned paper and card as advertising media. Quite often in glossy womens magazines, postcard sized spam cards will fall out when opened. This junk often consists of various offers and advertisements for different shops, both physical and online. Oxendales do advertise in this manner. They also buy advertisement pages within the magazines pages. Their other paper advertising is through their own full and mini-catalogues. The full Oxendales catalogue is only available through request from their site. However, the mini-catalogues showing their latest offers are sometimes distributed through peoples letterboxes and as a third party supplement in Sunday Newspapers. Bibliography ONLINE SHOPPING STATS: http://www.roymorgan.com/findings/6095-online-shopping-on-rise-201503182332 WHY SHOP ONLINE? http://upstreamcommerce.com/blog/2012/02/14/8-reasons-consumer-likes-shop-online WHY SHOP ONLINE? http://www.forbes.com/sites/barbarathau/2013/10/08/why-consumers-really-shop-online/#304510da4ab5 OXENDALES ABOUT US: http://www.oxendales.ie/shop/aboutus/aboutUsView.action?cm_sp=OXI-Footer-_-AboutUs-_-AboutUs MARKETING CAMPAIGN: http://www.cio.com/article/2377257/online-marketing/7-ways-to-create-a-successful-integrated-marketing-campaign.html OXENDALES IRELAND: http://www.oxendales.ie/?PROMO=2000gclid=CjwKEAjww9O3BRDp1tq0jIP023YSJAB0-j1SZzTjxpFOGyGZev_jbyMQPHU5trQzI0Kn6-f5OQA2NhoCPDHw_wcBgclsrc=aw.ds Principles of Marketing 8th Edition, Kotler and Armstrong 2012, Prentice Hall Pearson, Ps 4/5/6 38-45

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Economic Policy Essay -- essays research papers

Economic Policy in Recent U.S. History In the highly materialistic world that we live in, success is generally measured in financial terms. The same is true in politics, where the success of a politician, especially the President, is measured by how well the economy did during his term in office. It is specifically measured by how well they bring down unemployment, grow the economy and fight inflation. Two basic modes of thought on the subject have pervaded public policy since World War II: supply-side and demand-side economics. Demand-side economics is generally known as Keynesianism, named after the English economist John Maynard Keynes. He believed that governments should force interest rates down by printing money and lending it from the central bank at a discount. This would put more money in consumers\\\' hands and encourage them to spend and consume more, thus creating an incentive for investment. This helped to solve some of the problems, but in the long run it is extremely inflationary, because with the increase of the money supply it becomes devalued. Keynesianism also calls for the government to spend more to try to help the economy grow. Keynesianism was a short-term solution to the problem and could only do so much for the economy before inflation caught up with it, and took it into recession. On the other hand we have supply side economics, which works on more of a long-term basis. It basically attempts to stimulate economic growth, which would reduce inflation, and raise the standard of living. Supply side proponents say that by reducing government regulations and taxation, this will stimulate more economic growth, and market equilibrium will be reached on it’s own, without government impositions. Keynesianism was popular until the late 1970’s during a period of ‘stagflation’, where both unemployment and inflation were rising together. Policymakers realized that they could not solve this problem with Keynesian ways of thought. When Reagan came into his Presidency he was faced with an economy that was in recession; the prime interest rate was 15Â ½ percent, the unemployment rate was over 7 percent and inflation was running close to 14 percent a year. Reagan and his advisors took a conservative approach to solving the problem and looked to supply-side, or ‘trickle down’ economics to accomplish their goal of bringing the country out of this... ...ngress in fact adopted the tax reductions, and a set of spending reductions was incorporated into the First Congressional Budget Resolution. The budget process for 1982 was never completed, however, and the 1981-82 recession intervened. The net result of these efforts has been that tax rates are lower now than in 1980, but not lower than rates in 1979. The reductions in aggregate federal expenditures relative to GNP, however, have not materialized. Indeed, during the first three years of the Reagan administration, federal spending as a percentage of GNP increased to historically high peacetime levels. Because the decline in the rate of growth of tax revenues has not been matched by a decline in the growth of expenditures, the government\\\'s budget deficit in real terms has also reached unprecedented peacetime levels. The 1983 deficit was almost 6 percent of GNP. Projected deficits for 1985 and 1986 exceed 4 percent of GNP. These levels are of the same order of magnitude as those reached during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Without a reversal of the tax reductions or significant real spending cuts, the projected deficits will not fall below 3 percent of GNP until 1989.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Towards Clarity and Boredom :: Writing Writers Education English Essays

Towards Clarity and Boredom Begrudgingly Admitting the Usefulness of Style Books When God stood over the Earth, rumor has it; he decreed that he felt the need to punish English Students everywhere. His response was swift and to the point: he gave the world Style Guides. Taking the big guy’s cue, William Strunk Jr, E.B.White and Joseph Williams all set about to light that path and frustrate writers and students everywhere. Mission accomplished. However boring they might be, they do, in fact, help light the path to writing and proper English style. In the end, while both books might be on the dry side, they both are great resources and often plug the other’s holes. Dealing with â€Å"The Elements of Style† first, it’s very clear to me that both Strunk and White really hated going over the same rules again and again year after year with each new crop of Freshmen every semester. That seems to be the overall tone of the book. You can almost see the kind of guy who wrote this: a foppish older book – possibly British – who stands over you and berates you over the â€Å"do and don’ts† of proper semi-colon usage. Sounds like a blast. While definitely not a rock and roll show by any stretch, â€Å"The Elements of Style† has several perks outside the content. First thing is that the book is only 85 pages. 85 Pages is something that, maybe, a student could read on a public bus on the way to an English class. It’s small, sleek, compact and easy to reference from. Also, it’s been written in a style that interjects some humor into the rather vanilla topic. Finally, Strunk and White keep it light. There isn’t anything more then the rule, a few examples and a brief passage about the rule. Nothing more, nothing less. Personally, there were a few rules from the list of several hundred that will benefit me in my present and future writing endeavors. â€Å"Do not break sentences in two† (Strunk and White 7) is a rule that is good to keep handy.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Internal And External Business Environment Of Bunzl Plc

Bunzl is one of the world’s fastest growing specialist distribution groups in international market. The groups specialized in providing one-stop-shop for customers within several business sectors. The business includes producing a range of product including outsourced food packaging, disposable supplies and cleaning and safety products, caterers, non-food retail, hotels, etc. Its operations spread across North America, Europe and Australasia. Within this paper, we will focus more on the retail sector of Bunzl’s business environment.The company existed as far as 1854, as a haberdashery business founded by Moritz Bunzl in Slovakia, but it was not named Bunzl plc until 1940. The Bunzl family transmigrated to US and Europe and formed Tissue Paper Limited, the original name for Bunzl plc. During its early years, the company enters various types of business some of them were successful and some other are failures. Going through several changes of direction, the company did no t loose its existence in local as well as international market.Today, the company is a focused international value added distribution and outsourcing group, with the addition of Filtrona, a supplier of fibre and plastic technology products to international niche markets, listed as a separate entity (‘History’, 2006). Within this paper, I will perform an analysis on the internal and external business environment of Bunzl plc. The following chapter will elaborate how the company manages its internal conditions during its daily operations. The next chapter is about the external conditions of the retail sectors, and the challenges it brought to Bunzl plc.In the later part of the paper, there will be a short analysis on how best Bunzl perform its strategic management to face corporate challenges. II. Internal Strategic Environment of Bunzl Plc II. 1 Bunzl Core Competencies Bunzl has formulated a range of corporate mission to guide its steps in daily operations. The company s upported manufacturers who assist in satisfying customers’ needs for the benefit of all. It aims to provide services of such excellence that customers prefer Bunzl as their supplier regardless of the brand and product they select (‘About Bunzl Distribution’, 2006).If all successful companies have their own values that describe their competitive advantages, for Bunzl, it is the effective and creative utilization of technology. The company has only a single and uniform hardware and software platform to operate its business. The main data center of the company resides at its Corporate Headquarters in St Louis. The facility includes UPS generator, dual A/C and redundant telecommunications. The company also has a ‘hot site’ disaster recovery center where all transaction data are relayed to this site as a protection from natural disaster (‘Bunzl plc – Major Products and Services’, 2006).The company has a real time software system consis t of order processing, purchasing, receiving, billing, sales, warehousing, distribution and accounting modules. All locations of Bunzl operations are equipped with those software and all of them are connected to a centralized database repository, which is maintained by corporate IT staff. The company also maintains a National Accounting Customers system that provides customers from all over the country with standardized reports (including fill rates, sales tracking, item utilization, etc).In the retail sector, the company has an extensive network of distribution centers that serves retail supermarkets. Using the technology elaborated above, the company aims to maintain the quality of its services. Furthermore, it utilizes e-commerce facilities for online ordering and EDI computer-based technologies to support its ongoing strategies to increase productivity, service quality and achieved their ‘packaged of performance’ slogan. E-commerce technology is also used to continu e explore new business opportunities.These new business opportunities might be pursued in the form of internal growth as well as acquisition of new business (‘Bunzl plc – Major Products and Services’, 2006). II. 2 Product and Market Management Bunzl retail segment grocery customers include small, regional and national supermarket chains as well as warehouse grocery stores. The retail segment provided Bunzl’s customers with disposable packaging, supplies and carryout items. The retail outsourcing segment has a fleet of over 370 trucks, operating through 83 locations in North America and serving all 50 states, plus Canada and Mexico (‘Bunzl plc- Business Description’, 2006).The company is the leading distributor of disposable paper and plastic packaging supplies to the retail grocery industry. This includes the self-distributing chains and wholesalers. Bunzl is the company who is recognized for revolutionizing the outsourcing industry. The compa ny revolutionized that industry by developing sophisticated marketing, procurement and logistics systems designed to lower the delivered costs of supplies. Within this retail sector, Bunzl offers customers three types of logistics systems, which are: ? Direct-Store-Door (DSD), which constitutes a direct delivery to customers stores and supermarkets? Warehouse Replenishment System, which describes a just-in-time delivery system to customers’ warehouses instead of to customers’ retail stores. ? Cross Docking, which describes a system that serves clients in accordance to their individual stores’ needs? It is a system of individualized store-ready deliveries. (‘Bunzl plc- Business Description’, 2006) II. 3 Financial and Performance Management From the figures displayed in their financial report, the company displayed an increasing amount of sales and net profit during the last decade.This displayed a considerable growth of market share which is an impor tant indicator of overall corporate performance. The profit margin and operational ratios also display positive indication. A more detailed data revealed that the company made ? 2,182 million from sales in the year 2000, while in the year 2005; the sales number went up to ? 2,916 million. Other sales numbers between the two periods indicated a stable increase of corporate performance. The operating profit account of 2000 displayed a number of ? 165 million, while in 2005, this number changes to ? 205 million.The number between the years also displayed a stable rate of increase. Other accounts from the income statement as well as the balance sheet indicated that the company manages their resources in a very presentable manner. II. 4 Human Resource and Culture Management In terms of human resource management, the company aims to provide employees with real jobs since the fist day of work. This means that the company will expect high quality of working performance, but not before all e mployees are provided with training that involves practical experience as well as formal programs.The company has high expectations on key personal skills such as teamwork, leadership, self-development, innovation and creativity. Maintaining these programs, Bunzl aims to: ? Increase employees’ personal effectiveness by concentrating on the tried and tested techniques used by managers and specialist around the world. ? Improve employees’ financial understanding by providing them with programs that educated employees to interpret financial information and make decisive contribution to the key financial ratios of the business? Help employees to concentrate on team working and enablement, making each of them realized that enablement of individuals are crucial to a team’s success, etc Graduates that joined with Bunzl stated that Bunzl has a carefully structured training scheme, which covers a wide range of areas and gives trainees exposure to the whole organization. They stated that the company only take few graduates but tend to be encouraging in the process of developing their practical as well as decisive skills. They also mentioned that the company values teamwork and equality in performing team tasks.III. External Business Environment of Bunzl Plc III. 1 Macro Environment (PEST Analysis) ? Political Politically, the company did not have many obstacles that harm growth. The company operates in foreign markets, but limited to the regions of North America, Europe and Australasia, in which, political business restrictions are minimum. Because Bunzl do not perform business activities in China or in other Asian economy, the business experiences minimum complications when it comes to government regulations, market entrance and tax.The company also has a reputation of providing employees with equal work treatment, this keeps all problems of race and nationality away forms Bunzl operations (Desloge, 2005). Furthermore, Bunzl plc is officially headq uartered in London, who provided it with a slightly lighter burden of taxation. Nevertheless, because most of the group’s operations are in countries with higher tax rate (US and European countries); the taxation charge recorded for Bunzl in its financial report could be higher that the UK base rate.For instance, in 2004 the recorder tax rate was 32%, which is slightly higher that the nominal UK rate of 30%. Another political obstacle is the approval of regulators in foreign country. This is because a country’s government where Bunzl interests in needs to protect local players. Therefore, politically, the objective of Bunzl to enter new market in a foreign countries might be delayed due to regulation to protect local players. ? Economic The retail segment is naturally a capital intensive business. Retail companies generally perform considerable borrowing actions which will be paid-off gradually by years of profit.In the case of Bunzl, the company has been on the busine ss for decades and therefore, has already a low debt to capital ratio. In order words, the company no longer has to carry the heavy burden of interest rates. Nevertheless, the company performed numerous large acquisitions in its operational years that new borrowings are made occasionally. For example, the net interest charge for continuing operations increased to ? 10. 8 million from ? 2. 9 million because increased average borrowings due to recent acquisitions (‘Bunzl eyes more acquisitions’. 2006).Environmentally, only a small portion of the increase in interest charge is caused by fluctuation of interest rates. The environments in which Bunzl performs its operations are comparatively stable. The translation issue also has a weak influence over corporate profitability. Any fluctuation would not cause changes to more than 1% of sales number. According to Porter and Ketels (2003), within the last two decades, the UK economy had shown some excellent economic metrics. The y also said that the awareness on the issues of competitiveness had also increased significantly.This situation had helped the country to improve the country’s prosperity since there is an increase in the level of labor force utilization (hours worked per employee, employment rate, and labor force participation rate). In addition, they found that the country had experienced good growth in labor productivity while the country’s export market share and the attractiveness of FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) were still stable. Despite the excellent performance in some economics metrics, Porter and Ketels (2003) pointed out that UK still lag many other advanced economies.They said while labor utilization is at high level, the country still face low labor productivity (Porter and Ketels, 2003). ? Socio-cultural Concerning the socio-cultural aspects, the company might consider following questions like, what are the attitudes toward foreign products. How strong are the environm ental issues? Are they important to address especially if we are embarking on international markets? (â€Å"PEST Analysis†). Under such circumstances, the customers and manufacturer/service providers, like Bunzl are closely related.It further influences the way Bunzl interacts with their suppliers in order to ensure the products tailored to fit their customers’ needs and faster delivery. In the socio-cultural aspect, the company does not deal with extreme differences of culture, as faced by other multinationals. On the other hand, the company faces a slightly more demanding corporate social responsibility (CSR) practices. Modern communities in the North America, Europe and Australasian region are more aware of the importance of a good CSR practice by multinationals.In the case of Bunzl plc, besides ensuring all-ethical operational processes, the company also performs various community investments. There is no apparent socio-cultural debacle in the corporate history. ? Technological The technological environment provided a tremendous chance for growth to Bunzl. The company lives within an advanced society where access to technology is practically limitless. The technology provided the company with the potential to increase the quality of its outsourcing services. For example, Bunzl can develop centralized procurement system, which employs computerized system as shown in the following figure:

Thursday, October 10, 2019

The Victory of Spanish over the Aztecs

The victory of Cortes over the Aztec was the result of certain military advantages the conquistadors enjoyed, as well as specific problems that weakened the Aztec people and made the empire more vulnerable. It is almost impossible to believe that a small amount of Spanish soldiers were able to conquer the mighty Aztec empire in this historic battle. As soon as Cortes and his army arrived to Mexico in 1519, where the Aztec used to live.They were kindly received by the emperor Montezuma, and their main goal of coming to Tenochtitlan was the gold. According to Sahagun, (2009), ‘’ when the Spanish had given the gold, they seemed to smile, to rejoice and to be very happy. Like monkeys they griped the gold’’, (p. 112). Despite their small number, the Spanish has defeated the Aztec, because of many advantages, such as the military technology they had, which were based on firearms, swords made by steel and iron and riding horses were a great advantage.Also, they ha d better weapon and a lot of the Aztec were scared of horses. Moreover, the Spanish looked like gods to the Aztecs, because of their aggression in killing people. What is more, the diseases that the Spanish carried, like smallpox and malaria, helped them a lot in victorious. â€Å" The pustules that covered people caused great desolation; very many people died of them, and many just starved to death; starvation regained, and no one took care of others any longer† (Sahagun, 2009, page 114).On the other hand, before the Spanish reached Mexico, there were many problems that faced the Aztecs, for example because of the Aztecs religion, it requested a large number of human sacrifices, which considered as an honor, where to be made to the Gods. â€Å" Once when Duran asked why the people were not content to sacrifice animals, he was told that the sacrifice of humans was the honored offering of a great lord â€Å" (Duran,2009,page 407). Furthermore, the Aztecs were not able to be united with other tribes, so the Spanish took this point as an advantage, by united with other tribes to fight the Aztecs.All of these factors were important reasons to destroy the Aztec’s civilization. In conclusion, the Spanish had no mercy in fighting with Aztec and they made many massacres back that time. They used many powerful battle methods against the Aztec, like swords, horses and diseases . Also, there were some interior troubles inside the Aztec society such as human sacrifices. after long battle between the Spanish and the Aztec and a long siege of the capital Tenochtitlan, where much of the population died from hunger and diseases.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Philosophy Study Questions

PHI 101C HW6 10/18/2012 Qiansongzi Chen 1. How might the constructive nature of your perceptions play a role in what you experience while you’re walking at night through a graveyard said to be visited by spirits of the dead? Constructive perception is in part something that our minds manufacture. Thus what we perceive is determined, not only by what our eyes and ears and other senses detect, but also by what we know, what we expect, what we believe, and what our physiological state is.Just because something seems or feels real doesn’t mean that it is real. 2. What are some of the factors that could influence the accuracy of your memory of an event that happened three years ago? Our memories are also constructive and easily influenced by all sorts of factors: stress, expectation, belief, and the introduction of new information. Added to all this is the selectivity of memory. We selectively remember certain things and ignore others, setting up a recall bias. No wonder the recall of eyewitness is often unreliable. 3.Let’s say that an incredible coincidence occurs in your life, and your friend argues that the odds against the occurrences are so astronomical that the only explanation must be a paranormal one. What is wrong with this argument? Just because something seems not so realistic, doesn’t mean it can only be explained by paranormal reasons. It’s an example of the appeal to ignorance. Just because you can’t show that the supernatural or paranormal explanation is false doesn’t mean that it is true. Unfortunately, although this reasoning is logically fallacious, it is psychologically compelling. 4.How is it possible for the prophecies of Nostradamus to appear to be highly accurate and yet not be? Prophecies of Nostradamus can be highly accurate when they predict very general and broad things, when they predict a specific thing, it usually fails to be accurate. Also, people tent to only notice the things prophecie s predict and turn out to be true, and ignore the things turn out to be false. 5. What is the principle that explains how much trust we should put in personal experience as reliable evidence? It’s reasonable to accept personal experience as reliable evidence only if there’s no reason to doubt its reliability.Personal experience alone generally cannot establish the effectiveness of a treatment beyond a reasonable doubt. 6. What is confirmation bias? How does it affect our thinking? Not only do we have a tendency to ignore and misinterpret evidence that conflicts with our own views; we also have tendency to look for and recognize only evidence that confirms them. We tend to look for confirming rather than disconfirming evidence, even though the latter can often be far more revealing. 7. What is the availability error? How does it affect our thinking?The availability error occurs when people base their judgments on evidence that’s vivid or memorable instead of reli able or trustworthy. 8. How do confirmation bias and the availability error lead to superstitious beliefs? The availability error not only leads us to ignore the relevant evidence, it also leads us to ignore relevant hypotheses. For any set of data, it is, in principle, possible to construct any number of different hypotheses to account for the data. In practice, however, it is often difficult to come up with many different hypotheses.As a result, we often end up choosing among only those hypotheses that come to mind, that are available. In the case of unusual phenomena, the only explanations that come to mind are often supernatural or paranormal ones. Many people take the inability to come up with a natural or normal explanation for something as proof that it is supernatural or paranormal. â€Å"How else can you explain it? † they often ask. 9. What is the argument from unnecessary restrictions? How can it be used to undercut supernatural or paranormal claims?Unnecessary res triction also called unwarranted design, because the phenomena observed are more limited or restricted than one would expect if the hypothesis were true. To be acceptable, a hypothesis must fit the data: this means not only that the hypothesis must explain tha data, but also that the data explained must be consistent with what the hypothesis predicts. If the hypothesis makes predictions that are not borne out by the data, there is reason to doubt the hypothesis. 10. What is the representativeness heuristic? How does it affect our thinking?We sometimes led astray by the representative heuristic, the rule of thumb that like goes with like. And we are generally poor judges of probabilities and randomness, which leads us to erroneously believe that an event could not possibly be a mere coincidence. 11. Why can’t personal experience alone establish the effectiveness of a treatment? Case studies alone generally cannot establish the effectiveness of a treatment beyond a reasonable d oubt. The reality is that personal experience alone generally cannot establish the effectiveness of a treatment beyond a reasonable doubt, but controlled scientific studies. 2. What is the placebo effect? A peculiar fact about people is that sometimes even if they are given a treatment that’s inactive or bogus, they’ll respond with an improvement in the way they feel. This response , called the placebo effect, is not all in the mind, it can involve both psychological and physiological changes. What exactly is behind this effect isn’t clear, but many experts say it depends on suggestibility, operant conditioning (previous experience with healing act), expectation, and other factors.